1 the cardinal number that is the sum of eight and one [syn: 9, IX, niner, Nina from Carolina, ennead]
2 a team of professional baseball players who play and travel together; "each club played six home games with teams in its own division" [syn: baseball club, ball club, club]
EtymologyFrom Middle English nine, from the Old English word niġon, from Proto-Germanic niwun, from the Proto-Indo-European root (e)newn.
- /ˈnaɪn/, /"naIn/
- Rhymes: -aɪn
- Albanian: nëntë
- trreq Amharic: (numeral: ፱)
- Arabic: (numeral: )
- Assamese: ন (na)
- Basque: bederatzi
- Bengali: নয (nay) (numeral: ৯)
- Bosnian: devet
- Breton: nav
- trreq Burmese: (numeral: ၉)
- Catalan: nou
- Cherokee: ᏐᏁᎳ (sonela)
- Cornish: naw
- Corsican: novi
- Crimean Tatar: doquz
- Croatian: devet
- Danish: ni
- Dena'ina: łq'ich'idi
- Dutch: negen
- Erzya: вейксе (vejkse)
- Esperanto: naŭ
- Estonian: üheksa
- Fijian: ciwa
- Finnish: yhdeksän (^)
- French: neuf
- Garífuna: nefu
- Georgian: ცხრა (tsxra)
- German: neun
- Greek: εννέα (ennéa), εννιά (enniá)
- Guaraní: porundy
- Gujarati: નવ (nav) (numeral: ૯)
- Hawaiian: iwa
- Hebrew: תֵּשַׁע (téiša) (used in counting), תִּשְׁעָה (tish'a)
- Hindi: नौ (nau) (numeral: ९)
- Hungarian: kilenc
- Icelandic: níu
- Ido: non
- Indonesian: sembilan
- Interlingua: nove
- Irish: naoi
- Italian: nove
- Japanese: 九 (く, ku; きゅう, kyū)
- Kalaallisut: qulingiluat
- trreq Kannada: (numeral: ೯)
- Karelian: yhekšän
- Khmer: (pram buon) (numeral: )
- Komi: (ökmys)
- Korean: 아홉 (ahop), 구 (gu)
- trreq Lao: (numeral: )
- Latin: novem
- Latvian: deviņi , deviņas
- Lithuanian: devyni, devynios
- Livonian: īdõks (old spelling: ȳdõks)
- Lojban: so
- trreq Malayalam: (numeral: ൯)
- Malgasy: sivy
- Maltese: disgħa
- Manchu: uyun
- Manx: nuy
- Maori: iwa
- Mari: индеше (indeše)
- Marshallese: ratimjuon
- Mongolian: ес (numeral: ᠙)
- Nahuatl: chicuei
- Norwegian: ni
- Novial: nin
- Occitan: nòu
- Old English: nigon
- Oriya: ଦଶ (dash) (numeral: ୯)
- Persian: (noh) (numeral: )
- Polish: dziewięć
- Portuguese: nove
- Punjabi: ਨੌਂ () (numeral: ੯)
- Quechua: jisq'un
- Rapanui: ka iva
- Romanian: nouă
- Russian: девять
- Sanskrit: नवम् (návam)
- Sardinian (Campidanese): noi
- Scottish Gaelic: naoi
- Sinhala: නවය (navaya)
- Slovak: deväť
- Slovene: devet
- Spanish: nueve
- Swahili: tisa
- Swedish: nio (^)
- Tagalog: siyam
- trreq Tamil: (numeral: ௯)
- Tatar: тугыз, tuğız
- Telugu: తొనిమిది, తొమ్మిది (numeral: ౯)
- Thai: (kào) (numeral: )
- trreq Tibetan: (numeral: ༩)
- Tok Pisin: nainpela
- Turkish: dokuz
- Tzutujil: waxaqi
- Veps: ühesa
- Vietnamese: chín
- Volapük: zül
- Vorlin: nin
- Votic: ühesää / үхесээ
- Võro: ütessä
- Walloon: ût
- Welsh: naw
- West Frisian: njoggen
- Zarma: yegga
set or group with nine components
- Lithuanian: devyneri, devynerios
the digit or figure 9
card with 9 pips
- ttbc Arabic:
- ttbc Bosnian: devetka
- ttbc Croatian: devetka
- ttbc French: neuf
- ttbc German: Neun
- ttbc Italian: nove
- ttbc Persian: (noh)
- ttbc Polish: dziewiątka (1,2)
- ttbc Portuguese: nove (1,2)
- ttbc Romanian: nouar (1); nouă (2)
- ttbc Serbian:
- ttbc Swedish: nia
- American Sign Language: * Amharic numerals: ፱
- Arabic numerals: 9
- Armenian numerals: Թ
- Bengali numerals: ৯
- Chinese numerals: 玖, 九
- Eastern Arabic numerals:
- Greek numerals: θʹ
- Gujarati numerals: ૯
- Gurmukhi numerals: ੯
- Hindi numerals: ९
- Kannada numerals: ೯
- Khmer numerals: ៩
- Lao numerals: ໙
- Limbu numerals: ᥏
- Malayalam numerals: ൯
- Mongolian numerals: ᠙
- Myanmar numerals: ၉
- Oriya numerals: ୯
- Roman numerals: IX
- Tamil numerals: ௯
- Telugu numerals: ౯
- Thai numerals: ๙
- Tibetan numerals: ༩
- defn English
In mathematicsNine is a composite number, its proper divisors being 1 and 3. It is 3 times 3 and hence the third square number. 9 is a Motzkin number. It is the first composite lucky number.
9 is the second non-unitary square prime (32). It has a unique aliquot sum 4 which is itself a square prime. 9 is the only square prime with an aliquot sum of the same form. The aliquot sequence of 9 has 5 members (9,4,3,1,0) this number being the second composite member of the 3-aliquot tree.
There are nine Heegner numbers.
Since 9 = 3^, 9 is an exponential factorial.
8 and 9 form a Ruth-Aaron pair under the second definition that counts repeated prime factors as often as they occur.
A polygon with nine sides is called an enneagon (technically) or nonagon (in common usage). A group of nine of anything is called an ennead.
In base 10 a number is evenly divisible by nine if and only if its digital root is 9. That is, if you multiply nine by any whole number (except zero), and repeatedly add the digits of the answer until it's just one digit, you will end up with nine:
- 2 × 9 = 18 (1 + 8 = 9)
- 3 × 9 = 27 (2 + 7 = 9)
- 9 × 9 = 81 (8 + 1 = 9)
- 121 × 9 = 1089 (1 + 0 + 8 + 9 = 18; 1 + 8 = 9)
- 234 × 9 = 2106 (2 + 1 + 0 + 6 = 9)
- 578329 × 9 = 5204961 (5 + 2 + 0 + 4 + 9 + 6 + 1 = 27 (2 + 7 = 9))
- 482729235601 × 9 = 4344563120409 (4 + 3 + 4 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 3 + 1 + 2 + 0 + 4 + 0 + 9 = 45 (4 + 5 = 9))
- (Exception) 0 x 9 = 0 (0 is not equal to 9)(though it can be considered -1 in the tens place and 10 in the ones place(10-1=9))
The only other number with this property is three. In base N, the divisors of N − 1 have this property. Another consequence of 9 being 10 − 1, is that it is also a Kaprekar number. The difference between a base-10 positive integer and the sum of its digits is a whole multiple of nine. Examples:
- The sum of the digits of 41 is 5, and 41-5 = 36. The digital root of 36 is 3+6 = 9, which, as explained above, demonstrates that it is evenly divisible by nine.
- The sum of the digits of 35967930 is 3+5+9+6+7+9+3+0 = 42, and 35967930-42 = 35967888. The digital root of 35967888 is 3+5+9+6+7+8+8+8 = 54, 5+4 = 9.
Subtracting two base-10 positive integers that are transpositions of each other yields a number that is a whole multiple of nine. Some examples:
- 41-14 = 27. The digital root of 27 is 2+7 = 9.
- 36957930-35967930 = 990000, which is obviously a multiple of nine.
- 99765330-35967930 = 63797400; 6+3+7+9+7+4+0+0 = 36, 3+6 = 9.
- 99765330-03356799 = 96408531; 9+6+4+0+8+5+3+1 = 36.
- 35967930-03356799 = 32611131; 3+2+6+1+1+1+3+1 = 18, 1+8 = 9.
Casting out nines is a quick way of testing the calculations of sums, differences, products, and quotients of integers, known as long ago as the 12th Century.
Every prime in a Cunningham chain of the first kind with a length of 4 or greater is congruent to 9 mod 10 (the only exception being the chain 2, 5, 11, 23, 47).
Six recurring nines appear in the decimal places 762 through 767 of pi. This is known as the Feynman point (see also MathWorld).
If an odd perfect number is of the form 36k + 9, it has at least nine distinct prime factors.
Nine is the binary complement of number six:
9 = 1001 6 = 0110
In numeral systems
List of basic calculations
Evolution of the glyph
According to Georges Ifra, the origin of the 9 integers can be attributed to the ancient Indian civilization, and was adopted by subsequent civilizations in conjunction with the 0.
In the beginning, various Indians wrote 9 similar to the modern closing question mark without the bottom dot. The Kshtrapa, Andhra and Gupta started curving the bottom vertical line coming up with a 3-look-alike. The Nagari continued the bottom stroke to make a circle and enclose the 3-look-alike, in much the same way that the @ character encircles a lowercase a. As time went on, the enclosing circle became bigger and its line continued beyond the circle downwards, as the 3-look-alike became smaller. Soon, all that was left of the 3-look-alike was a squiggle. The Arabs simply connected that squiggle to the downward stroke at the middle and subsequent European change was purely cosmetic.
While the shape of the 9 character has an ascender in most modern typefaces, in typefaces with text figures the character usually has a descender, as, for example, in
- The Saros number of the solar eclipse series which began on -2568 February 6 and ended on -1252 April 4. The duration of Saros series 9 was 1316.2 years, and it contained 74 solar eclipses.
- The Saros number of the lunar eclipse series which began on -2501 June 26 and ended on -1149 September 16. The duration of Saros series 9 was 1352.2 years, and it contained 76 lunar eclipses.
ProbabilityIn probability, the nine is a logarithmic measure of probability of an event, defined as the negative of the base-10 logarithm of the probability of the event's complement. For example, an event that is 99% likely to occur has an unlikelihood of 1% or 0.01, which amounts to −log10 0.01 = 2 nines of probability. Zero probability gives zero nines (−log10 1 = 0). The purity of chemicals (see Nine (purity)), the effectivity of processes, the availability of systems etc. can similarly be expressed in nines. For example, "five nines" (99.999%) availability implies a total downtime of no more than five minutes per year. This measure can be confusing, a fact which is discussed in the myth of the nines.
PhysiologyA human pregnancy normally lasts nine months.
- Important Buddhist rituals usually involve nine monks.
- The first nine days of the Hebrew month of Av are collectively known as "The Nine Days" (Tisha HaYamim), and are a period of semi-mourning leading up to Tisha B'Av, the ninth day of Av on which both Temples in Jerusalem were destroyed.
- Nine, as the highest single-digit number (in base ten), symbolizes completeness in the Bahá'í Faith. In addition, the word Bahá' in the Abjad notation has a value of 9, and a 9-pointed star is used to symbolize the religion.
- Nine is a significant number in Norse Mythology. Odin hung himself on an ash tree for nine days to learn the runes.
- Jesus healed ten lepers; nine did not even thank him.
- Anton LaVey applied the number to Satan.
As lucky or unlucky number, Chinese cultureNine (九 pinyin jiǔ) is considered a good number in Chinese culture because it sounds the same as the word "longlasting" (久 pinyin jiǔ). The Japanese consider 9 to be unlucky, however, because it sounds similar to the Japanese word for "pain" or "distress" (苦 kunrei ku). The fear of the number nine is enneaphobia.
Nine is strongly associated with the Chinese dragon, a symbol of magic and power. There are nine forms of the dragon, it is described in terms of nine attributes, and it has nine children It has 9×13 scales, 9×9 being yang (masculine, or bad influence) and 9×4 being yin (feminine, or good influence). The dragon often symbolizes the Emperor, and the number nine can be found in many ornaments in the Forbidden City. The circular altar platform (Earthly Mount) of the Temple of Heaven has one circular marble plate in the center, surrounded by a ring of nine plates, then by a ring of 18 plates, and so on, for a total of nine rings, with the outermost having 81=9×9 plates.
- There is a rapper named Tech N9ne whose name stands for "Tech Nine" because 9 is the number of completion
- The Beatles released a song called "Revolution 9" which appears on The White Album (more properly known as The Beatles); its principal vocal feature is a voice repeating, "Number nine...number nine...number nine..." John Lennon, the primary composer of "Revolution 9", also released a solo recording entitled "#9 Dream".
- Dublin pop-punk band Nine IX Lives formed in 2005 and use 'IX' in their logo.
- Nine ball is the standard professional pocket billiards variant played in the United States.
- In association football (soccer) the centre-forward/striker traditionally (since at least the fifties) wears the number 9 shirt. The number has been worn by a great number of famous centre-forwards and strikers including, but not limited to, Ronaldo, Mia Hamm, Ally McCoist, Alan Shearer, Hernán Crespo, Fernando Torres and Samuel Eto'o.
- The car number of the 1988 NASCAR Nextel Cup championship-winning team, when Bill Elliott won the title. He used this number again from 2001 to 2003. Kasey Kahne has driven the 9 car since 2004.
- In baseball, nine represents the right fielder's position.
- The retired uniform numbers of former baseball players Ted Williams and Roger Maris. Reggie Jackson also wore 9 with the Oakland A's for nine years and is now retired.
- In ice hockey the number 9 is one of the most prestigious sweater numbers, having been worn by legends like Maurice Richard, Bobby Hull,Gordie Howe, and Mike Modano. It was also worn, doubled as 99, by the great Wayne Gretzky.
- The San Francisco 49ers are sometimes referred to as the "niners".
- The most notable NFL quarterbacks to ever wear the number 9 are Drew Brees of the New Orleans Saints, Carson Palmer of the Cincinnati Bengals, Tony Romo of the Dallas Cowboys and Steve McNair of the Baltimore Ravens.
- The number worn by current NBA player Tony Parker of the San Antonio Spurs, MVP of the 2007 NBA Finals.
- The number worn by Roy Hobbs in the movie The Natural.
- In rugby, the number generally worn by the scrum half.
- The number worn by Rashard Lewis of the Orlando Magic.
- The number worn by both Michael Jordan and Dwyane Wade in the U.S. Olympics Team.
- Number worn by Lisa Leslie currently on the Los Angeles Sparks.
- In computer system administration, uptime, a measure of the time a computer system has been up and running, is sometimes measured in "nines"—that is, the number of "9" digits in the percentage of time the computer is normally running. For example, "five nines" means 99.999% reliability, which translates to a total downtime of no longer than five minutes per year.
Nine and the circleThe Enneagram is one system of knowledge which shows the correspondence between the 9 integers and the circle. The 360 degrees of the circle, which can be trace back to the Rig Veda of ancient India, can also be seen to speak of the 9, via theosophical addition (3 + 6 + 0 = 9)http://www.quantumyoga.org/theosophical%20addition.html. 
In other fields
- Nine is the highest single-digit number in the decimal system.
- In the NATO phonetic alphabet, the digit 9 is called "Novenine".
- Channel 9, an Australian free-to-air television station
- Nine judges sit on the United States Supreme Court.
- The word "K-9" pronounces the same as canine and is used in many U.S. police departments to denote the unit working with police dog.
- The ordinal adjective is ninth.
- There are nine circles of Hell in Dante's "Divine Comedy".
- Stanines are measured on a scale of 1 to 9.
- The name of the area called Kowloon in Hong Kong literally means: nine dragons.
- Someone dressed "to the nines" is dressed up as much as they can be.
- Nine Lives Cat Food got its name from the legend that a cat has nine lives.
- Nine rank system
- The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art
- Nine Worthies
- 9: The Last Resort was a 1995 computer game.
- Seven of Nine, fictional character from the Star Trek universe
- Magic: The Gathering has a set of nine rare cards, widely regarded as overpowered, known as the Power Nine.
- Nine West is a popular brand for clothing.
- The number of hostages in the TV show The Nine
- Ninth Avenue is a major avenue in Manhattan.
- Nine Unknown Men are, in occult legend, the custodians of the sciences of the world since ancient times.
- The 9, a show on the Internet, hosted by Maria Sansone. The 9
- The Nines is a film written and directed by John August, starring Ryan Reynolds, Hope Davis and Melissa McCarthy. It premiered at the 2007 Sundance Film Festival, and is now out on DVD.
- In the game of Craps, 9 is known as the center field because it is in the middle of the seven numbers on the field bet.
- In Middle Earth, there are nine rings of power given to men, and consequently, nine ringwraiths.
- "A cat-o'-nine-tails suggests perfect punishment and atonement." --Robert Ripley.
- Wally Cleaver's locker number was #9.
- The Nine Bright Shiners, characters in Garth Nix's Old Kingdom trilogy. The Nine Bright Shiners was a 1930s book of poems by Anne Ridler and a 1988 fiction book by Anthea Fraser; the name derives from "a very curious old semi-pagan, semi-Christian" song.
- "Nine" is a song title on the Neurosis album Given to the Rising.
- Many mathematical magic tricks have a connection to the number nine, that because every multiplication of nine adds up to nine, any number minus the sum of all digits becomes a multiplication of nine, and any three digit number minus the same number in reverse becomes a multiplication of nine
- Nine was the client number of Eliot Spitzer at The Emperor's Club.
- The character Cirno from the Touhou series is often called "nine," "⑨," "circle-nine," or "nineball," because in the game manual for "Phantasmagoria of Flower View," she was labeled .
nine in Arabic: 9 (عدد)
nine in Official Aramaic (700-300 BCE): 9 (ܡܢܝܢܐ)
nine in Guarani: Porundy
nine in Catalan: Nombre nou
nine in Chuvash: 9 (хисеп)
nine in Czech: 9 (číslo)
nine in Corsican: 9 (numeru)
nine in Danish: 9 (tal)
nine in Pennsylvania German: Nein
nine in German: Neun
nine in Erzya: 9 (вейксэ)
nine in Spanish: Nueve
nine in Esperanto: Naŭ
nine in Basque: Bederatzi
nine in Persian: ۹ (عدد)
nine in French: 9 (nombre)
nine in Gan Chinese: 9
nine in Korean: 9
nine in Igbo: Itolu
nine in Indonesian: 9 (angka)
nine in Interlingua (International Auxiliary Language Association): 9 (numero)
nine in Xhosa: Ithoba
nine in Icelandic: Níu
nine in Italian: 9 (numero)
nine in Hebrew: 9 (מספר)
nine in Kinyarwanda: Icyenda
nine in Haitian: 9 (nonm)
nine in Kurdish: Neh
nine in Latin: Novem
nine in Luxembourgish: Néng
nine in Lithuanian: 9 (skaičius)
nine in Lombard: Nümar 9
nine in Hungarian: 9 (szám)nah:Chiucnāhui
nine in Dutch: 9 (getal)
nine in Japanese: 9
nine in Neapolitan: Nove
nine in Norwegian: 9 (tall)
nine in Norwegian Nynorsk: Talet 9
nine in Polish: 9 (liczba)
nine in Portuguese: Nove
nine in Quechua: Isqun
nine in Russian: 9 (число)
nine in Sicilian: Novi
nine in Simple English: Nine
nine in Slovenian: 9 (število)
nine in Serbian: 9 (број)
nine in Finnish: 9 (luku)
nine in Swedish: 9 (tal)
nine in Tagalog: 9 (bilang)
nine in Thai: 9
nine in Vietnamese: 9 (số)
nine in Turkish: 9 (sayı)
nine in Ukrainian: 9 (число)
nine in Vlaams: 9 (getal)
nine in Yiddish: 9 (נומער)
nine in Contenese: 9
nine in Chinese: 9